DFW Metroplex Training Academy

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Level IV - PPO Requalification

The Four Options in Personal Protection Are:

  1. Escape or Evasion: Avoidance of potential harm to the client, the personal protection officer, and the aggressor(s) is always the preferred choice when confronted with a dangerous circumstance. Recognition of likely threats and pre-planning to avoid, evade, or escape those threats is the responsibility of the personal protection officer.
  2. Submission/Passive Resistance: When avoidance, escape or action creates too much likelihood of harm to the client, innocent parties, or the personal protection officer, the officer may be forced to submit until the opportunity for escape or action presents. Passive resistance while maintaining a defensive posture creates an environment that hinders the aggressor(s) from executing plans as desired and may create opportunities for successful actions.
  3. Active Resistance: Although it is preferable to maintain the safety of the client, if the opportunity for successful overwhelming force against the aggressors presents, the personal protection officer may opt to carry the fight to those attempting to do harm to the client.
  4. Weapons: The types of weapon response available to the personal protection officer include baton and firearms.

The personal protection officer must recognize the level of force appropriate for the level and type of aggression presented.

Force Options: Personal weapons may include hands, forearms, elbows, knees, feet, head and even teeth. Batons constitute intermediate weapons. Firearms or other improvised weapons utilized in a manner to cause death or serious physical harm, are the force options available and constitute deadly weapons. Regardless of the type of weapons (personal, intermediate, or deadly) employed, and regardless of the particular tactics or techniques utilized, NOTHING works 100% of the time. As a personal protection officer, the responsibility for contingency planning to safeguard the protectee also rests upon the officer.


Advance Planning:
Personal protection officers should pre-plan in order to identify and eliminate as many potential threats to a client as possible. Advance planning should begin with building a client profile.

Step One: Client Profile: A Client profile is an overview of the protectee and the cataloguing of their activities and surroundings. Information should be compiled relating to the following areas:

  1. Personal and family history (Relatives, friends, close associates)
  2. Medical Information (Blood type, allergies, illnesses/disease, medications)
  3. Lifestyle (Social media, public appearances, group affiliations, etc.)
  4. Profession
  5. Hobbies/Interests/Activities
  6. Location (Alarms and Alarm codes, remote access codes, locks, keys)
  7. Religious and Political Preferences
  8. Media Exposure/Notoriety
  9. Past Incidents
  10. Potential for Future Incidents (Kidnapping, Assault, Burglary, Stalking, Threats, Etc.)

Step Two: Site Surveys: Conducting site surveys allows the personal protection officer to continue to examine the client and identify susceptibilities to danger. Once areas and properties owned or frequented by the client have been evaluated, establish identification of other persons who should typically be encountered at those locations and if possible, work with site representatives to restrict access to clients.

Step Three: Three Layers of Protection: The three layers of protection refers to Outer, Middle, and Inner Perimeters will have different requirements for the following conditions:

  1. Technical Aids: Alarms, motion detectors, cameras, telephones, radios, computer, etc.
  2. Protection Personnel: Protection team and local authorities.
  3. Physical Barriers: Buildings, walls, fencing, furniture, vehicles, etc.

Force Options

The term “force options” refers to the types and applications of force available to security officers. There are five categories of force options:

  1. Professional Presence
  2. Verbal Commands
  3. Empty Hand Controls
  4. Hard Hands/Intermediate Weapons
  5. Deadly Force

Professional Presence: refers to the security officer’s bearing, demeanor, posture, and appearance.

Verbal Commands: refers to the security officer’s ability to communicate; you MUST be able to communicate skillfully under pressure.

Empty Hand Controls: refers to soft techniques designed for pain or stun compliance without the likelihood of injury. Pressure points, come-a-longs, takedowns, open hand strikes fall in this category.

Hard Hands/Intermediate Weapons: refers to force options that may cause incapacitating injury. Fists, elbows, and baton fall in this category.

Deadly Force: refers to that force that is intended or known by the actor to cause, or in the manner of its use or intended use Is capable of causing death or serious bodily injury.

Dynamic Resistance Response Model: The DRM, developed by Chuck Joyner and Chad Basile, determines the officer’s response and identifies the suspects into one of four categories: not resistant (compliant), non-threatening resistance, threatening resistance, and deadly resistance.

Suspect Categories:

  1. Not Resistant (Compliant): Suspects who do not resist but follows all the commands and is compliant. Only a security officer’s presence and verbal commands are required when dealing with these individuals and no coercive physical contact is necessary.
  2. Non-Threatening Resistance: A suspect fails to follow commands and his actions are neutral or defensive, and the officer does not feel threatened by his actions. Non-Threatening Resistance occurs when the subject isn’t following your commands but is not doing anything that causes you to feel physically threatened. If the officer does not feel physically threatened, he/she is allowed under this second category to use empty hand controls.
  3. Threatening Resistance: A suspect takes offensive action and to defend him/herself or another, the security officer must respond with appropriate force to stop, eliminate, or control the threat. If the security officer believes the subject’s behavior is physically threatening to the officer or another person (Threatening Resistance), then the officer is justified in using personal weapons, baton, etc.
  4. Deadly Resistance: A deadly resistant suspect will seriously injure or kill the officer or another person if immediate action is not taken to stop the threat. The officer is justified in using force, including deadly force, reasonably necessary to overcome the offender and effect custody.

For each of the four suspect categories, officers have all of the tools in the preceding categories available. In each instance, officers constantly should give commands to the suspect when doing so does not jeopardize safety. Remember, the suspect’s level of resistance is responsible for the determination of the level of force or response utilized by the security officer.

Defensive Tactics: The ABC’s of Defensive Tactics:

Attention to the dangers present amid surroundings. A Personal protection officer should maintain constant vigilance in order to detect and avoid becoming a victim of aggressive acts. Observation of the body positioning, gestures, voice, tone, volume, and physical indications that physical altercation may be looming can assist the officer in responding appropriately to diffuse or avoid harmful actions.

Hand and body positioning to counteract aggressive action. By recognizing natural barriers, a personal protection officer may prevent aggression simply by positioning him or herself beyond reach from aggression or assault. Absent the presence of physical barriers, the personal protection officer should pay attention to balance, stance, and personal barriers (hands, arms) in order to deter a physical assault.

Application of technique to avoid harm or prevent aggression. Should an attack be initiated against a personal protection officer, reasonable tactics should be employed to overcome or offset the attack.

OC Spray

Penal Code Section 46.05, Subsection (f) provides a defense to prosecution for security officers who have received training on the use of a chemical dispensing device that is either (1), provided by TCOLE or (2), approved by the Private Security Board.